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Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Leadership and Difference between Leadership and Management

Leadership is very important for all the organisations and there has been lot of research on this topic. This tutorial would be a useful assignment help for you to work on your assignments and homework related to leadership.

A simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and connected.

Features of leadership

  • Leadership is continuous process of behavior.
  • Leadership is a relationship between leaders and his followers.
  • Leader influence the behavior of individuals.
  • It helps the followers to attain the goals.
Difference between Leadership and Management

There are some points that create the difference between leadership and management. Some of these are:
  • Leadership deals with vision, keeping the mission in sight and with effectiveness and results whereas management deals with establishing structure and system to get those results.
  • Leadership is worked based on their personal abilities whereas management is based on delegation of authority.
  • Leadership inspires his followers to do the tasks and motivates them whereas management controls their subordinates from deviation.
  • Leadership emphasizes on transformational aspect that means it recognize the need for change, to execute the effectively. Whereas management emphasizes on transactional approach that means it focuses on routine activities, evaluating performance, making decisions.
  • Leadership can formal and informal both whereas management is formal only.
Informal and Formal Leaders

Formal leader is a member of organization who has given on the basis of his position to influence other members of organization to achieve organizational goals. Managers, directors are formal leaders in a typical organization.

An informal leader has no formal organizational authority to influence others but possesses special kills and talent to influence and lead other members of organization. Informal leaders are best candidates for future formal leaders.

Leadership Styles

Leadership styles are the patterns of behavior which a leader adopts in influencing the behavior of his followers. It is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.

Based on the degree on use of power, there are three leadership


1. Autocratic Leadership:
In autocratic style of leadership, a manager centralizes decision making power in him. He takes all the decisions by himself for their followers and passes orders to them. It is useful when organization needs quick decision making.

2. Democratic Leadership: In democratic style of leadership, a manager allows substantial participation of subordinates in decision making. They take the ideas and suggestions on which decisions are based. This is helpful in motivating the employees as they feel themselves as a part of the organization.

3. Free-rein Leadership: In this type of leadership complete freedom is given to subordinates. Manager depends upon the group to achieve their goals and subordinates are free to take decisions by their own.

Friday, August 26, 2011

Directing Function of Management

Main functions of management are Planning, Organizing, Staffing and Directing. Directing as a function of management is concerned with instructing, guiding and inspiring people in the organization to achieve its objectives. It involves overseeing people at work, making provision for the necessary facilities and creating a work environment, whereby employees may perform to the best of their abilities.

Features of Directing

Below are the characteristics features of the Directing function of the management:
  • It is managerial function perform by all the managers at all levels.
  • Its function is to initiate the action in an organization.
  • Motivates the employees for better and efficient performance.
  • It is a continuous function

Principles of Direction

Harmony of Objectives: Individuals join the organization to satisfy their physiological and psychological needs. They will perform their tasks better if they feel that it will satisfy their personal goals. Therefore, management should harmonize the personal goals of employees with the organizational goals.

Unity of Command: A subordinate should get orders and instructions from one superior only. If he is made accountable to two bosses simultaneously, there will be confusion, conflict, disorder and indiscipline in the organization. Therefore, subordinate should report to one superior only.

Appropriate Techniques: The managers should use correct direction techniques to ensure efficiency of direction. The techniques used should be suitable to the superior, the subordinates and the situation.

Direct Supervision: Direction becomes more effective when there is a direct personal contact between a superior and his subordinates. Such direct contact improves the morale and commitment of employees. Therefore, wherever possible direct supervision should be used.

Democratic Leadership: This principle states that leader should give respect to the opinions and views of his subordinates. As a result of this, leaders can secure maximum output from their followers.

Follow up: Directing is a continuous process. Therefore, after issuing orders and instructions, a manager should find out whether the subordinates are working properly and what problems they are facing.

Means of Direction
There are two important means of directing

Orientation: It is the means in which new employees are introduced with working environment of the organization. Managers give direction about the work and relation with the other jobs. This is very important to align individual objectives with organisation objectives.

Issuing orders and instructions: Managers in an organization obtained orders in daily routine. And they should use proper skills and knowledge while issuing the orders. Orders that have been issued could be in oral or written form.

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

Change Management

The term change refers to an alteration in a system whether physical, biological, or social. Thus, organizational change refers to an alteration in the working environment. It sets the new equilibrium between different components of the organization.

Why Change is required:

There are two forces that arises the need for change in an organization:

External Forces: Due the dynamic environment there are some forces that lie outside the organization system. These external forces need to be adopted in an organization.
Internal Forces: It is not only the change in external factors which may necessitate organizational change; any change in organization’s internal factors may also necessitate change.

There are two reasons that needs change in internal environment

1. Change in Managerial Personnel: Employees those who are working in the organization get changed due to retirement, resignation, promotion, transfer etc. And each manger has its own ideas and way of performing the job.

2. Deficiency in Existing Organization: Sometimes, change is necessary because of deficiency in the present organization system. Deficiencies may be in the form of unmanageable span of management, lack of coordination etc.

Why there is Resistance for Change

In the management of change effectively, managers have to face problem of resistance to change. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. If the change is minor then it does not affect much to the organization. But if the change is major, then people in the organization may often resist change in organization.

Causes of Resistance to Change

There are three factors that cause resistance to change:

Economic Factors

1. Skill Obsolescence: When new technology introduced in an organization this creates a fear of degrading the skills of people that resist change.

2. Reduced incentive Opportunity: Whenever there is change, people think that new system will lower down their incentives opportunities.

Psychological Factors

1. Status Quo:
People do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern.

2. Fear of Unknown: Change that has been introduced is unknown for the people in an organization. Lack of uncertainty creates stress in the minds of the people that resist change.

Social Factors

1. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: When there is any change, their existing social interaction is likely to be changed which people do not want.

2. Feeling of Outside Interference: Due to the interference from the outside factors, people resist change in an organization.

I hope that you will get useful information about change management and it's most important factors throw this post if you need more content about management or need assignment help then send your query at

Friday, August 19, 2011

Different Performance Appraisal Methods

This blog post is about different performance appraisal methods that are used in different organizations. Performance Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the performance of employees and to understand the abilities of a person for further growth and development. It is done to determine who needs more training, who will be promoted, demoted, transferred etc. It motivates the employees to learn and grow.

There are two methods for the performance appraisal

A. Traits Appraisal

Performance is measured on the basis of qualities of employees. Emphasis is made on quantity and quality of work done, skill, intelligence, dependability, adaptability etc. There are several variants for appraisal method.

i. Ranking Method: This is the method in which employees are ranked on the basis of more or less effective and are compared inter-personally. This method is useful when numbers of employees are less.

ii. Rating-scale Method: In this rating scale is used to measure the employees’ qualities and attributes. For example, the quality “initiative” is divided into five degrees on the scale: exceptional, above average, average, below average, and poor. Rater tick marks the one degree that he feels more suitable for the employees.

iii. Graphic scale Method: this method is similar to the rating scale method, in this degree and attributes are indicated on the graph or chart.

iv. Check-list Method: Listing of number of statements about the performance and behavior of employees. Rater verify the statement whether it applies or does not apply to the employee.

v. Critical Incidental Method: This method involves employee appraisal on the basis of events or incidents and analyze employee reactions on a particular situation.

B. Modern Methods of Performance Appraisal

There are some modern methods used for performance appraisal particularly for managerial personnel.

i. Appraisal by Results: It implies evaluation of the managerial performance in terms of objectives. In this process, appraisal to measure how managers are able to set the objectives and in how much time that can be achieved.


  1. The basis of appraisal is to measure the performance against target.
  2. It is a participative technique, as target that needs to be achieved is already discussed with the superior.
  3. It aims at developing the performance.
ii. Appraising Managers as Managers: This is the approach that is used to evaluate the performance of the managers in terms of basic functions and tasks of management.

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

Impacts of Reengineering Process on the Field of Training

Processes of re engineering in business are an important way to analysis, redesign and transformation the work flow and change the business process within an organization. It is a fundamental concept that helps to rethink and redesigns the business process to achieve the dramatic improvement and helps to measure performance such as cost, quality, service and speed (Hanna 2010).

Impact of Re-engineering Process on the Training Field

Re-engineering process is helpful to enhance capability to expand the business and develop the satisfaction level of customers and employees by curing systematic process and behavioral problems. Re-engineering process of business priorities must change some ways such as boss to customer focus, effective control between workers and decision makers and activity based result orientation. Significantly, it also develops flexibility and responsiveness in the company. Stakeholders become loyal towards each other (Haskell & Greenwood 2009). Some specific ways of process of re-engineering that impact on the field of training is as following:-

Improvement in Establish Key Performance Measures:

The re engineering process helps to make effective training in the organization. It plays an important role in the training field through monitoring the results such as employee’s attitude, behavior and their perception of thoughts towards the customers. It measures progress of action and outcomes by monitoring the progress action. It helps to show that how much people informed and at what extent they are committed towards the company. Monitoring results also show the customer attitude, perception and supplier responsiveness etc. It support to continuous improvement of performance by tracking system of performance and by using application of problem solving skills (Khosrowpour 2006).

Develop and Implement Future Processes:

It helps to develop effective future process and implements in the organization by providing better training to top level to bottom level employees. It mainly focused on two different problem solving techniques that support business process; these are analytic and creative techniques. It is a continue process in organization to make effective training and all other process from beginning to end. It helps to implement performance improvement that is related to the internal efficiency and competitive advantage (Tsai 2003).

Re-engineering is an important key that is helpful to every organization to achieve the success of business. It also helps to build clear business strategy and identifies the initiative that would be helpful to improve the performance. The organization should needs to be adopted the process re-engineering projects from top to down and full end processes for the success of business. Re-engineering does not only redesigning and replacing the establish system and process of business, but it is a strategy that helps to continuously transforming existing system and business processes. On the other hands, many organizations cannot achieve their re-engineering goals and objectives (Haskell & Greenwood 2009).


Thus, form the above discussion, it can be concluded that the process re-engineering plays an important role in organization to redesign strategies and replacing the existing system and business process. It developed the effective training system in the organization by measuring the attitudes, skills and behavior of employees towards customers. Re-engineering process helps to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization, it should be necessary in every business within an organization.

Hanna, N. K. (2010). Transforming Government and Building the Information Society: Challenges and Opportunities for the Developing World. USA: Springer.
Haskell, R. E. & Greenwood (2009). Reengineering Corporate Training. USA: IAP.
Khosrowpour, M. (2006). Cases on Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering. USA: Idea Group Inc (IGI).
Tsai, H.L. (2003). Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering: New Perspectives and Strategies. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Strategic Business Event

Strategic business event are created in order to organize events for individuals who are interested to better understand about their future commercial landscape (Strategic business event 2011). This paper discusses about a current event 7th international strategic management conference and how it pertains to strategic management. Further this paper discusses about why this event is considered as a strategic event.

7th International Strategic Management Conference

The 7th international strategic management conference is held in France and Paris between the dates of June 30 and 2 July, 2011. Beykent University of Istanbul, Turkey, the Gebze Institute of Kocaeli, Turkey, and the Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University of Canakkale, Turkey are jointly organized this strategy (The 7th international strategic management conference 2007).

The main aim of this conference is to set a platform for exchanging views and discussion among different strategists, practitioners and academicians who are coming from different countries and backgrounds. “Investigating Strategies of Recovery from the Recession” is the conference theme for this year. Main objective of this theme is to identify solutions in order to recover from recession (The 7th international strategic management conference 2007).With the help of this conference; participants can develop effective strategies to recover recession because different participants can provide their views on this issue.

Strategic Business Event

Strategic business event is related with conducting conferences of real excellence. The main aim of such conferences is to address emerging and recent developments in several business environments (Robinson, Wale & Dickson 2010). Generally, strategic business events are not repeated year on year. It is related with true market monitor-conferences that will be helpful to provide several tangible returns related to several management challenges that are relevant to a particular industry and time periods. Generally, conferences are held on real complex issues such as retail, the food industry and law and financial services that have a scale of high opportunity (Robinson & Robinson 2005).

The 7th International Strategic Management Conference pertains to strategic business events for several reasons:

  • First, it is related with a real issue the main aim of which is to investigate strategies related to recovery from recession.
  • It was a big conference that required involvement of several people to successfully attain the objective of conference.
  • Recession is a major issue that was regularly impacting on different economies and affected different industries such as information technology, banking industry, etc. it reflects that the conference was strategic business event (Allen 2007).
  • Conference also provided several opportunities such as to become a successful businessman in the period of recession, to reduce the impact of recession on business activities, etc. to different businessmen.
  • Objective of conference is also highlighting that it is related with long-term perspective that also help it to present itself as a strategic business event.


From the above discussion, it can be concluded that the 7th international strategic management conference is pertained as a strategic business event due to several reasons such as consideration related to current issue, involvement of several people, etc.


Allen, J. (2007). The Executive's Guide to Corporate Events & Business Entertaining: How to Choose and use Corporate Functions to Increase Brand Awareness, Develop New Business, Nurture Customer Loyalty and Drive Growth. Canada: John Wiley and Sons.

Robinson, D. G. & Robinson, J. C. (2005). Strategic Business Partner: Aligning People Strategies with Business Goals. US: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Robinson, P., Wale, D. & Dickson, G. (2010). Events Management. UK: CABI.

Strategic business event (2011). Retrieved August 12, 2011, from

The 7th international strategic management conference (2007). Retrieved August 12, 2011, from

Monday, August 8, 2011

Economic Bubble and E-commerce

Economic bubble arises due to rapid increase in demand of goods. It increases output and employment rate from real level. It has both positive and negative effects. Positive effects are such as higher employment that helps to improve standard of living. It is also helpful to increase earnings of the government as higher income leads to higher tax receipts (Riley, 2004).

At the same time, economics bubble also has negative effects. It leads to financial crisis in the economy. In this situation, investing pattern in non-productive asset increases as supply of money increases (Saccomanni, 2008). A person spends more money for the consumption of durable and non-durable goods due to higher income. This spending creates inappropriate allocation of monetary resources that brings economy at saturation point. It reduces development and expansion of the economy.

On the other hand, businesses have a tendency to increase their production capacity to meet the increased demand of consumers that increases workforce expenses and declines organizational profitability (Riley, 2004). To maintain their profit margins, business increases the price of their products and services. High price creates high inflation rate and it contributes in financial crises. In addition, excess money supply also reduces interest rates. Companies take excess debt from banks for capital investment that also brings a sudden boom in the economy (Raines & Leathers, 2008). It creates financial crises as its make them unable in repaying the debt. This activity leads to bankruptcy and insolvency of the corporations.

E-commerce is a part of e-business that includes buying and selling of consumer products over various means of communication such as telephone, internet, fax etc (Li, 2007). E-commerce has significant role in economic boom. Nowadays, business organization can sell their product around the world through internet (Bidgoli, 2002). It helps in increasing their revenue that leads to economic boom but it also increases the fraudulent activities of business organization that creates economic bubbles. All these activities are creating fake growth of organization as well as the economy that may force the economy in crisis situation.

At the same time, e-commerce provides unique platform of shopping but it also increases purchasing habits of the consumers (Thanasankit , 2003). It changes the investing pattern of consumers as the investment in durable and non-durable assets that are not productive assets increases. It creates wealth for organizations for short-time, but for long-term; it is not beneficial for the organization and economy as well.

On the other hand, E-commerce provides a platform that has no geographical limits. It increases complexity for the businesses. Government provides guideline regarding e-business activities. These rules and regulation are providing a systematic framework for e-commerce. It prevents the fraudulent activities of business organization and also helps to prevent sudden boom in the economy (Loh, 2006). At the same time, these regulations also decrease credit risk of business organization as it sets limits of credit for them. Beyond that limits, consumer cannot purchase goods on credit (Saunders & Allen, 2002). It helps to reduce fake sales of business as this can be contributed in sudden economic boom.


Bidgoli, H. (2002). Electronic commerce: principles and practice. USA: Academic Press.
Li, F. (2007). What is e-business?: how the Internet transforms organizations. Great Britain: Wiley-Blackwell.
Loh, P. (2006). E-commerce for the global markets. Singapore: Knowledgeworks Consultants.
Raines, J.P., Leathers, C.G. (2008). Debt, innovations, and deflation: the theories of Veblen, Fisher, Schumpeter, and Minsky. Great Britain: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Riley, G. (2004). AQA AS Economics Module 1&2 Digital Textbook. Tutor2u Limited.
Saccomanni, F. (2008). Managing international financial instability: national tamers versus global tigers. Great Britain: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Saunders, A. & Allen, L. (2002). Credit risk measurement: new approaches to value at risk and other paradigms (2nd ed.). USA: John Wiley and Sons.
Thanasankit, T (2003). E-commerce and cultural values. UK: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

Friday, August 5, 2011

Span of Management

Span of management implies total number of subordinates handled by one manager and they have to supervise every subordinate. It is also termed as span of control, span of supervision, span of responsibility, but it is preferred to use span of management because it takes the organization as a whole and control and supervision is a part of management.

Span of management faces various problems regarding limits on the number of subordinates that each manager can handle. It is difficult for every manager to handle the infinite number of employees because no manager is that much expert who can handle them. Furthermore, it is assumed that if the number of subordinates increased then required time for each decreases and if the manager has to control large number subordinates within a limited time span then quality of supervision reduces. Sometimes subordinates are not able to attain the objectives due to their limited mental energy this also creates problem for span of management.

There are two types of span one is wide and other is narrow, in wide span large number of subordinates can be handled while in narrow span number is limited, narrow span is expensive as it has too many levels that requires large number of managers and staff also. It further creates difficulties in communication. And wide span decreases the quality of supervision because the number of subordinates are large that reduces the required time of every subordinate which further affects supervision. Large number of subordinates also deviate from the objectives of policies.

After discussing difference between wide and narrow span we will discuss some factors that determine the feasibility of span of management for a particular type of situation, first is time required to be spent on supervision which explains that every manager has to do their own work, apart from the supervision they have to do administrative work, policy making, and contact to customers. After doing all his work then he supervise the work of his subordinates. Size of the span depends upon the time taken by the managers in doing the administrative task, more the time will be, less will be the span of management.

Second is subordinate training, if the subordinates is trained then span will be wider as they can manage more subordinates at a time. But it is difficult to trained at higher level because manager is not able to know what to teach and how to teach, at the lower level it is comparatively simple.

Third is delegation of authority it states that if the subordinates have authority to carry out the sufficient task and are well trained will increase the span and the subordinates who don’t have any authority then they will take much time of his superior and will reduces the span.

Fourth is degree of decentralization includes that if the superior have to take all decisions by himself then the span will be narrow. On the other hand, if the organization is decentralized then managers are relieved from the burden of decision that leads to widening the span.

Fifth is similarity of functions supervised, it means that if the functions that are supervised by the manager are of repetitive in nature then he will become familiar with jobs and increases the span and if the work changes regularly or complex in nature then it needs more time of the superior which reduces the span of management.

Tuesday, August 2, 2011

Organization Structure of Toyota

Organization structure is a way in which the members of an organization work together with the coordination and in cooperative manner to achieve the organization’s goals. It represents the hierarchy of an organization (Abramowicz, 2009). This paper discusses about the organization structure of Toyota organization.

Organization Structure of Toyota

Each firm establishes an organization structure that identifies the responsibilities for employee’s and relationship among them. Organizational structure is based on span of control, organizational height and use of line versus staff position. Toyota follows the matrix organization structure. The Toyota organization structure is designed to support teamwork. Toyota followed the power of coordinated team structures (Toyota, 2011). The goal of the Toyota is setting up the ideal organization structure. It helps to clearly understand the purpose and objectives of the organization by everyone. Toyota divided the jobs and responsibilities according to the functions, divisions, department, groups etc.

Matrix structure divides authorities of functions and product structures. In the Toyota structure, Leaders play a key role in the success of the company. The Toyota has few layers of the span of control of leader at the bottom of organization. Their philosophy is to separate responsibility to the lower level. This helps for decision making and smooth flow of information for achieved the objectives. Team leader and group leaders have three basic responsibilities. These are supporting of operations, promotional of the system and leading change. The group leaders play a crucial role in the development of the Toyota structure (Liker & Hoseus, 2008).

Comparisons of other Organization Structures

Traditional Organization Structure: In the traditional organization structure, organization given authorities and responsibilities on top management. There is no middle management. This system works effectively in the small companies. Toyota follows the matrix organization structure. It provides the authorities and responsibilities of the lower level also. In this structure, employee’s also participated of organization decisions and given their suggestions also.

Divisional organization structure: In this structure a team focuses on a single product or services. So that one division will separate to another division. There is no coordination between two divisions. Divisions must be well managed otherwise they are not success. Lower level is not participated in the organization decisions. Toyota follow the matrix structure, in this structure members of different groups working together to develop a new product line (Graubner, 2006).

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