Saturday, July 23, 2011

Performance Appraisal and its Methods

Performance Appraisal is a process that helps organization to improve its human resource’s productivity to achieve some objectives and goals. It can be possible by identifing the strengths and weaknesses of employees. After identification, it goes for the measurement of potentiality, than record that information and lastly it involves development of employees. This whole process generally supervised under the managers or seniors (Erasmus, Swanepoel, Van Wyk, & Schenk, 2003). This post could be a source of information who are looking for assignment help related to performance appraisals.

Performance appraisal is an important tool to improve organizational performance. It provides a benchmark to organization for effective recruitment and selection. It appraises individual performance but through this improvement in performance has been made automatically. Training program is also improve by it because when an employee’s strength and weaknesses is identified than selection of training method become easier for organization (Sims, 2002). So, these factors increase importance of appraisal system in organizational improvement.

Performance appraisal is conducted through different ways in different type of organizations. These ways are called methods of performance appraisal. Basically it can be of two types: Traditional and Modern Methods.

Traditional Methods: These methods are used by organization since very long time. It appraises employees on the bases of their traits. This type includes several methods and related to self-appraisal of employee. These are:

Essay Appraisal Method: This method used by rater to explain employee’s strengths, weaknesses, potentiality etc. also give suggestion for improvement in written form (Cascio, 2006).

Straight Ranking Method: Rater rate employees from top to bottom or best to worse on the bases of performance behavior (Kreitner, 2008).

Critical Incident Method: Supervisor appraises subjective behavior of employee in a particular task or job (Cascio, 2006).

Check List Method: Appraiser appraise employee by prepare a list of normal behavior and check it according to once behavior (Cascio, 2006).

Graphic Rating Scale:
In this method each employee rated on the bases of characteristics and it is a graphical representation (Denisi & Griffin, 2005).
Forced Distribution: It make clear difference between successful and unsuccessful performance of employees (Denisi & Griffin, 2005).

Modern Methods:
This type of appraisal includes various methods that are introduced from past few decades. It also called results method. These include:

Management by Objectives:
It rates employees on the bases of achievement of goals that are mutually decided by manager and employees (Denisi & Griffin, 2005).

360 degree appraisal:
appraise employee’s performance from 4 sides that mean manager, subordinate, peer group and customer give feedback about an employee (Kreitner, 2008).

Interview Method:
It provides a way to subordinate to discuss about performance and areas of improvement with employee (Denisi & Griffin, 2005).

Both types of methods are used by different type of organizations. But in present scenario, modern methods are used more specifically. In modern method 360 degree appraisal is most usable method in many organizations. Management by objective and interview method are also effective methods but used lesser than 360 degree appraisal (Catano, 2009). It is because 360 degree appraisal provides feedback of any employee from manager, peer group, subordinate and customers. So, it provides all over behavior and performance of employee at all level.

Cascio. (2006). Managing Human Resources. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Catano, V.M. (2009). Recruitment and Selection in Canada (4th ed.). USA: Cengage Learning.
Denisi, A.S., & Griffin, R.W. (2005). Human Resource Management (2nd ed.). USA: Dreamtech Press.
Erasmus, B., Swanepoel, B., Van Wyk, W., & Schenk, H. (2003). South African Human Resource Management: Theory & Practice (3rd ed.). USA: Juta and Company Ltd.
Kreitner, r. (2008). Management (11th ed.). USA: Cengage Learning.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing organizational behavior. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.